US 1867531: "July 12, 1932. C. F- . REED 118679531 DEEP WELL DRILLING AFFARATUS Filed March 1. 1927 2 (OCR)"

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Patent Title: July 12, 1932. C. F- . REED 118679531 DEEP WELL DRILLING AFFARATUS Filed March 1. 1927 2 (OCR)
Patent Number: 1867531 Filing Date: Jan 01, 0001
Application Number: Issue Date: Jul 12, 1932
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July 12, 1932. C. F- . REED 118679531 DEEP WELL DRILLING AFFARATUS Filed March 1. 1927 2 Sheets-Sheet I /0- 4a 20a 9 7 /0- da

July 12, 1932. C. Fr. REED 19867,531 DEEP WELL DRILLING APPARATUS Filed March 1. 1927 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 12a a t#5, 16' 16 13

Patented July 12, 1932 lt8679531 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CLARENCE R R-PP, , OF WICHITA, KANSAS, ASSIGNOR TO CHICAGO PNEUXAT3[C TOOL COMPANY, OF NEW YORK, N. Y., A CORPORATION OF NEW TERSEY DEEP WELL DRILLING APPARATUS Application filed March 1, This invention relates to a roller cutter assembly for deep well drilhiag apparatus. An object of the invention is to i)rovide an arrangein@nt of cutters adapted to cut f. soft foi-mations, lime in particular, which ordinarily locks and balls up the usual forms of rock bit rolling cutters causing them to stop cutting. 1 Another object is to provide a cutter assembly iia wh- ich the amount. of metal opposed to the bottoin of the liole is a mininium so that the LyouainLy action will be increased bv reison @f t@he S@inking of tlle metal bits in the soft lime formation and the goug5 ing thereof upon turnin,- of the bit head. Anotlier object is to obta'm a LyouL)-ing action upon a tou,-Ii so-called soft rime-formation or the like to gouge out the material by the weigl-it of the drill stem forcing the teeth ill. of the cutter into the material, 'as distin- guished from the usiial crumbling actioii of liard rock under a rolling cutter. A ftirtlier object is to provide the cutters with teeth of sufficient depth to penetrate the soft forniatioii under the weight of the drill stem so as to cause the gouging out of the material tipon ttirning of the drill. - The invention consists in the features, combiiiation and arrangement of parts hereinafter described and particularly pointed out in the claims. . In the (Irawin-s: Fi@,;@uile 1 is a ;ectional view on the center line of the drill head and assenibly. Fi 2 is a sectioiial view on the line 2-2 looking in the direction of the arrow, with the cutters removed. Fig. 3 is a view of the locking collar and locking pin for the en(I of the shank, the sli-,Tili@ t-.eing shown in the outer recess in the drill head. Fig. 4 is another view of the end of the sliank with the lockin- collar and pin in Fig. 5 is a view of the bushing showing its eccentricity. Fi(r. 6 is --i view of the locking collar. Referring to the drawi-n.(Ys. 1 represents a (!rill liead formed in one piece and having an inverted V-shaped recess 2 formed in its 1927. Serial No. 171,831. under side and having a hollow spindle 3 ex- tending at right angles from each of the op- posite inclined walls 2a of the recess. The drill head 1 is also provided on each inclined wall 2a witli a depression or seat 4 95 forming a tlirust shoulder 4a for sustain'mg the upward thrust upon bushing 5 'which engages the spiiidle 3 and which has an ec- centric. portion 6 which colatacts the thrust slioulder 4a of the seat 4. 60 A main frusto-conical cut-ter cone or roll- er 7 is mount@ed upon each bushing 5 and these trail each other. Through one of the sets comptising disc roller cutter 7, bushing 5 and.spindle 3 extends a shank or shaft 8 of 65 a spindle 20 at right angles to wall 2a, which shank enters one of. a pair of recesses 9 formed one in each of the opposite outer waus 10 of the drill head, which shaiak termi- nates -short -of the, outer end of the recess, 9 TO to be eng4ged by a lockiiag collar 11 and lock- section has its ane cut- is associated, and VS t s cutter 22 arra d to singly cut the area at the bot of hole within the an- nular zoiae cut by the- tracking side roller cutters. The end of the shank 8 in the recess 9 has 80 a reduced portion 13 with an enlarged por- tion or head 14 on the end of the reduced por- egments cut out tion. The head 14 has s of its periph eral edge leaving oppositely disposed spaces or gates 15. 85 I.,oc king collar 11 comprises a disc 16 hav- ing a ae@ending flange 1'[ with portions or gates cut away at 18 and 19 to cooperate with the flanges 15a of the head 14 of the shank 8 to form a bayonet joint locking device. 90 Wher e the flange 17 is cut away at 18, a lock- ing member or pin 12 is adapted to be inserted to prevent relativ6 movement between the collar 11 and the shank 8, as well as between the shank and the head 1. The flat wall 12a 95 of the lockiiig pin 12 engages a correspond- ing flat surface 9a of the recess 9, thus pre- ventid g ariy turning movement of the pin 12, which in turn holds the shank 8 against turn- 100 ing. The locking collar and pin are also

2 1,867,531 adapted to engage the drill head at A to hold the shank or shaft in the drill head. A shaft 23 is provided for supporting the other cutter 7. The shaft member 23 is se- 6 cured in the head in e@actly the same manner as is the sl-iank 8 and is identical -with shank 8 except that it does not have a spindle at its inner end and is not split into two parts. The shank 8 has a spindle 20 on its inner 10 end. The shank 8 with its integral spindle 20 is divided into two parts 8a and 8b, longitudinally thereof, so that the spindle 20 may be inserted in the inclined Lyroove 21 to gras the overhanging head 2-la a the supplemental 15 roller cutter 22 in a manner similar to that shown in my application filed January 12 1927, Serial Number 160,668 patented July 19, 1927, No. 1,636,667. The cutter 22 is disposed between the two 20 main cutters 7, adjacent that cutter 7 through which the shank 8 of spindle 20 extends, and lying mainly to one side of the vertical axis of the head 1. The spindle is provided with a conical en- 25 largeinent 20a which enL-aLres corresponding conical surfaces in the l@o@e of bushing 5 to 1-iold the bushing to the head, and which extends beyond the bushing over a portion 'f cutter 7 as at 20b to hold the cutter on the 30 bushing. The purpose and function of the supplemental cutter 22 is to remove the earth or rock formation from the central uncut portion of the hole indicated at B on the draw- 35 ings. The uncut or raised portion shown at B is slightly exaggerated to clearly show the portion -which must be gouged out by the cutter in each revolution thereof about the 40 vertical axis of the drill head. While the teeth of this cutter have the usual shape employed on rock bits, grooves are cut therein to aid in the gripping and oougino- action. . 'vvhile the roller cutter 22 i@'capablre of roll- 45 ing and crumbeng action, by reason of its being mounted to roll, as are the cutters 7 the principal.function of the cutter 22 is to secure a gouging action upon the central part of the f ormation in the hole, by reason of 50 its deep grooves and its rotation about the vertical a,xis oj' the head 1. Each of the main cutters 7 and the suppl6mentary cutter 22 are provided, in addition to the V-shaped teeth or V- shaped rid-es, with relatively deep concentric grooves'--as shown in Fig. 1, which 55 grooves cross the V-shaped teeth and form the teeth into individual projections of spike, like nature, and such a. tooth can readily be forced into a tough soft lime formation and 60 the rotation of the drill head will cause the teeth to gouge out the bottom of the hole. As shown in Fi ' o,- I the large cutter 7 which is coaxial cutter 22 is provided with but one groove, while the other is provided with two concentric grooves. Cutter @2 as shown C'5 has two concentric grooves, and the apex of this cutter is a wedge shaped point similar to the point of a center drill used in machine tool pratice. 'The formation of the cone cutters and the deep spiked teeth on the cutters 5 with plenty 7o of space provided between the cutters (such as the space opposite cutter 22) for the reception of the soft, tough material upon sinking of the teeth into the material under the ,vei ht of the drill head, permits the material 75 to t e gic)uged out upon turding of the drill head. The single supplementary cutter 22 provides a conical pointed wedge like portion -which will much more rapidly penetrate the formation than if the space opposite it were 80 occupied, since the space receives loose ma- terial and -ets it out of the way, and thus permits the cutter 22 to act freely and effec- tivelv in its gouoing action. The weight of the drill head a-nd stem forces the teeth of 85 cutter 22 and main cutter 7 into the tough lin-le formation or the like and by reason of the rotation of the drill head and the conse- quent revolution of the cutter 22 about the vertical axis of the head, the material is @3 0 gouged out, as distinguished from the usual crumbling action of hard rock under a roll- ing cutter. The flushing fltiid conduit is arran(red axially of the bit head and the groove@'of 95 the roller cutters pass the fluid issuing from this axial conduit in sufficient quantity to produce an hydraulic effect upon the bottom of the hol6. In assembling the main cutters 7 in thp, 100 head, the cutters are placed against eacli other so that their oppositely (lisposed teeth deep- ly interiiiesli durin(r ihe act of their inser- tion into the head. @The exteiit to -wliich the teeth niay be intermeshed durin(r ilisertion is 105 indicated by the I)ositioii of the root Iiiies of the teeth in the cutters. The forn-iation of t-he V-shaped teeth is shown in Fi-. 1 in which the V-shaped ridges forming radial grooves are intersected by 110 deep concentric grooves. l@L portion only of tlle toothed surface of the cutter is shown. It will be seen that the grooves which ex- te,nd alon- tl-le cutters between the teeth from the large'r@'to the snialler ends thereof regis- 116 ter in succession witli the vertical flusliino, fluid passage and that these crrooves are fre-e throughout their exteiit because the teeth on the opposed cutters do not intermesh anA there is nothin(r to obstruct the flow of the 120 flushing fluid ttirough these grooves so that the s-,tid fluid %vill ii-nplii,-e directly upon the bottoii-i of the hole and will dislodge the mate- rial at that point. The teeth on one cutter oi,ei@lap the circumferent,ial grooves between 125 the teeth on the opposed cutter. I claim: 1. In a deep well drilling apparatus, a drill head having a recess in its under side, the opposite incliiaed walls of which rece@s 130

1,867,581 3 diverge down-ward][y, a pair. of main roller cutters of- substaiitially equal diameter and altitiide mounte(I one on each iiiclined face witli their axes respectivel3,- at ri(yht ano'les m zn tbereto aiid convergiiig downwardly, and a sm,illor diameter stipplemental roller cutter coaxially inotinted witli respect to one of said iiiain etittei-s aii(I (lisl)osed mainl37 to one side of the vertical axis of the drill head and be- 10 tween the main roller cutters there being a vacant space betiveen said stipplemental roller and the other main roller and on the opposite side of said vertical axis. 2. In a deep well drilling apparatus, a 15 drill head havin(y an iiiverted V-shaped ree,ess in its uiider - side, the op osite inciiiied p -%valls of N@,hicli recess diverge downnvardly at equal angles from the vertical axis of the drill head to provide substanti-,illy equal spaces 20 on opposite sides of the vertical axis, a pair of roller ciitters coaxially mouiitecl on one of said iiiclined -Nvalls in one of said eqtial spaces, aiid a sin(rie roller cutter mouiited oii the op- 05 I)osite ineliiied wall in the other space said single roller bein(, of substaiitially the same size is one of the rollers of said pair, thus leai,inff a, stibstantial portion of said other space unoccupied. 3. Iii a drillina apparatus, a drill head liaviii(r a recess in- its under side, the opposite inclined walls of which recess diverge do-,vii-,vardlv, a pair of relativel@ large main y rollei- ciitte@s of eqiiil diameter and altit-iide iiioiiiited oiie oii each iiicliiied face witl-i their ,5 axes resl)ectively at riaht an(ries thereto and (-oiii-er(,in(y downivardly, and a SiD- le relatii-ely siiialler siipplemental roller cutter coaxially mounted with respect to ODe of said niain cutters only aiid disposed within the 40 crowii of the same aiid m@iiiily to one side of the vert ' ical axis of the drill head. 4. In a drilling apparatus, a. drill head havin(v in inverted V-shaped recess in its un- 45 der side, the opl)osite inclined walls of which i,ecess d'lverge downivardly, a pair of roller (-titters of equal diaiiieter mounted one on eacli iiicliiied wall with their axes respective- ly at ri(,ht aiigles to the -%Yalls whereby the n 50 iniier faces of tlle roller cutters are parallel resl)cctively to the inclined walls and define -i second iiiverted V-shaped space withi the n re(less, and a supplemental roller cutter niouiited coaxially witli one of said roller ciit- tei-S ai-,d disposed maiiily to one side of the !-)5 vel-ticiil axis of the drill head to ocetipy sub- staiitially one-half of the said secoiid invert- e(I V-slial)ed space leaviiig the other half of sai(I second sp,,tce vacant. 60 @).. Iii a drilliiig apl)arattis, a drill head liaviiicr an inverted V-sliape-cl reces-s in its uii(ler si(le, the opl)osite incl;.i-ied ivalls of which (liv(,r(,re (loivii,,vardly, the ol)posite iiicliiie(I wa'lls eacli liivin(y- a holloiv spiiidle 1)1-()j(,ctiii,-r it ri lit aii(,,les therefroiii each 9 &,- of said walls also liaving a recessed seat there- in adjacent the hollow spindle, said seat forming a thrust shoulder, each of said walls havin(,y a. bore.extending from said hollow spindle throuah said head and terminati g in a see- n ond recess at the outer wall of the head, an 70 eccentric bii bina suri-o-Lindin- each hollow spindle, the ece-entric portioii of which engiges said seat and thrust shoulder to hold the bushin- aoainst turning@ a main cutter roller inouiite(ffor turning movement on each 75 bushiiig, a siiigle supplemental frusto coni- cal cutter betv@,een the main utters and lo- cate(.1 at one s ide of the Vertical axis of the drill, a divided spindle interlocked with said supplem ental roller cutter ancl having a di- 80 vided sh,,ink passing through one of the said busliings and hollow spindles, and means at the outer side of the head for holding the shank in place, su'Dstantially as described. 6. In combiiiation with a deep well drill, a 85 head having a i-ecess, a. cutter in said recess, a spindle on which the cutter turns, said spin- clle liaving a shank extending througli the head and terminating in a recess on the outer side of the head, a, collar on the end of the 90 sliank having gateways for the passage of flanues on the shanl@, and havino, flances to 2n tn C, I)ass through gateways on the shank, and a locl@@i na inember to pass througli the aligned gateway s of the collar and shank, said lock- iii a mei- nber being held in position by the wall of the otiter recess, substantially as described. 7. In an apparatus of the class described, a (]rill head liax-iii(y an invei-ted V-shaped recess 100 &, in its under side, a pair of iiiain cl-itter rollers inounted one on each of the opposite inclined ivalls of the recess witli their axes respec- tively at right angles to the walls, a. spindle having ft sliailk extending axially throu(rli one el 105 of said rollers and securecl to said head, said spiiidle and shanlc beidg split longitudinal- ly itito two parts, and. a suppleiiiental roller cutter carried by said sl)indle. 8. In aii aPI)aratus of the class described, a 110 drill head liaving an inverted V-shaped rec@ss iii its uiider side, the opposite inclined walls of which recess each liave a hollow spindle projectiii - at riglit angles therefrom, and a rei each liaviiig recessed seat the n adjacent the liolloiv sl)indle, said seat formiiig a thrust slioulder, aii ecceiitric bushin(r surrounding eacli 'ilollow spindle, the eccentric portion of whicli eii(rages said seat and tlirust shoulder to lock the b,.isliiiicr a(Taiiist turning relative to t-I @- 190 the liead, a I)air of roller cutters mounted one oii eacli bushiii(,, aiid ineaiis for holding said t- roller cittters, saicl iiie,-@iis (@,xtendiii,)- through t, tlio hollow spiiiclles aiid sectired to said head. 9. Iii apparatiis of t@ie. class dese-ribed, a 125 dr.ill licad li,,ivid aii i iiverted V-sliaped recess in its iiiider ' s;de. i-oller cutters iiiounted oii the ol)p(,site iii(-Iiiie(I ivall'.@ of said recess, said liei(I li-,tviii(r a t)oi-e throiigli ea(-Ii iiielined wall it i-i(,-Iit iii(Irl-es tli(,reto, a wall of each bore r., 1 130 haviii(@- a ocking piii reec@ivilig recess there-

4 1,867,531 in a, shaft in each bore for mounting said roller cutters, locl@ina means for securing said sbaft in tlic@ bor@comprieing a locking collar and a locking pin, said'shait having a C, reduced portion and a. head on the end of the reduced portion having gates cut in its flange said locking collar having -aates cut therein' con,lplern,entary to the flang@ portions of the sha, ft to pi-ovide a bayonet joint, said locking 10 pin being adapted to be received in the recess iii the bore and to enga-e and lie in t@e coinciding -aates of the sh@'ft and collar to loe-k the shaft@and collar a-ainst turning iii the liead, said locking collar also being adapted 15 to en(yage the drill head to hold the shaft in In position. 10. In a deep well drilling apparatus, a drill head havin(y an inverted V-shaped recess in its under side, an inclined wall of the re- 20 cess having a hollow spindle projecting at riglit anties therefrom, a btishing inounted gn the spindle, a cutter mounted on the bushing and a shaft extending through said cutter , busl)ing a,nd spindle, and secured to said 25 head, said shaft havino- a conical enlargement oii its free end wliieli i; adapted to engage the bushing and cutter to hold them in place. 11. In a deep well drilling apparatus, a drill head a hollow roller cutter beariiag 30 mounted on said head, an outer cutter mounted for rotation on the outside of the bearing and an inner cutter organization mounted on the inside of the bearin(r, the outer cutter be- tn ing held in place on the bearing by the in- 35 ner cutter organization the latter including a split spindle with a split shank in the bearing and on which spindle the inner cutter turns. 12. In a deep well drilling apparatus a, drill head having an innerted V-shaped re- 40 cess in its under side, roller cutter means in said head mounted on opposite side walls of said recess, said mealis comprising substantia,lly conical roller cutter means on one wall occup3,ing substantially @ll of the reces8 to one 45 side of tl-ic vertical axis of th,e, head, and a frusto-conical roller etitter on the opposite wall of less altitude than the said conical cutter n-ieans, thus leaving a -n uncut area, between 50 the path of the frusto-conical roller ana the vertical axis of the head to be opou-ed out by the apex portion of the said co-nica@l cutter means. 13. In a deep -well drilling apparat@s, a 55 drill liead havi@g a -wall inclined to the ver- tical ,txis and defining a. recess in the under- side of the head, a spindle projecting froin said wall, @, recess seat in the wall, a @ushiiig on the spindle, said Bushin- havin- an ec- centric flancfe base enga-ing said seat, and a co tn roller on thtebushing. 14. In cornbiiiation a bit head havin- an imverted V shaped recess iii i.ts lower end, a hollow spindle projecting from the in,5 clined wall of said recess, i. bushing on said spindle, a roller cutter on stid bushing, a split spindle having a split shank extend- ing through the hollow spindle, means for holding siiid split spindle and shank to the head, a suppleniental roller having a stem held between the members of the split spindle, 70 said split spindle holding the roller cutter first mentioned and the bushing in place, sub- stantially as described. 15. In combination, in a deep well drillino, appara-tus, a bit head having a wall at its 75 lower end inclined to the vertical axis, and with a hollow spindle projecting-relative to said wall, a bushing on said hollow spindle covering the sideq and end portion of the hol- low spindle, with means for holdina said 80- bushing a,(Yainst rotation o 's n aid hollow spin- dle, a supplemental spindle havin- a shank held within the hollow spindle and Raving an - enlarged head projecting beyond said hollo-@, spindle, and a, r@iler etitter means held. by 85 said enlarged head aiid turning about th6 same and having a portion turning on the btishing, the la'tter having an -openin- to permit the supplemental spindle to be assem- bled with the hollow spindle projection, sub- go stantially as described. 16. In a deep well drilling apparatus, a drill head having a wall inclined to the vertical axis and defining a recess in the under side of the bit head, a. hollow s-Dindle projecting at right angjes from said,@all, a bush-. ing mounted on said hollow spindle, a roller Clitter mounted on the bushing and a supplemental spindle extencling through said cutter, busliing and spindle, and secured to said bit head, said supplemental spindle having a.n enlargement at its free end which engages the busbino, and cutter to hold them in place, @-I and a supplemental roller cutter turnable on said supplemental spind.le substantially as 105 described. 17. In combination in an earth borin(r to6l, a bit head having an inn,erted V-sl-iap@d re- @ess, there being @ socl-et in the hea ' d opening into said recess and with its axis at righi. 110 angles to the downwardly and outwardly in clined wall of said recess, a longittidina-Ily split spindle in said socl,-et, means fot hold- t a,-roller cut- g axially beyond 115 leaving a groove body of the cut ter, sa-id stem havino- its terminal portion overhanging said gr(7ove, 'said split spindle embracing said projectin-Y stem. 120 18. In combination in a, deep Nvell drilling ipparatus a bit head having an inverted V- shaped recess at its lower end, an andular spindle project-in(y from the inclined wall of said V-shaped r@cess do-wliwardly and in- 125 wardly towards the vertical axis of the drill, roller cutter means and bearin- means for the roller cutter nieaiis, said bearii-ig means being fi-Xed in the head Ind having a, portion 130 surrounding the said annula;r spindle and a 95 100

1,867,531 5 Shank portion extending within the annulax- aidal side cutter, to singly cut a zone within spindle. 19. A deep well dribing apparatus comprising a bit head having an inverted V- shapecl recess a-t its lower end, aii annular spindle projecting from the inclined wall of said V-shaped recess downwardly and inwardly towards the vertical axis of the drill, rofler cutter means, and bearing means for 10 said roller cutter means, said bearing means having a downwardly and inwardly extending portion, a portion embracin- the. spiiadle ancl a stem portion exteadiiag through the 15 spmdle and fixed in the body of the head. 20. l[n a deep well drilling appa-ratus, a drill head havina a wall inchned to the ver- tical axis of the- apparatus and defining a recess in the under side of the bit head, a ho]Jow spindle project@Dg at right angles 20 from said waR, a rouer cutter surrounding the said hollgw spindle, a bushing interposed between said roller cutter and the hollow spindle, a suppleme-fital spindle extending through said hoflow spindle and secured to 25 the bit head, said supplemental spindle having an enlargement, and a roller cutter covering the outer end of the eialargement and rotat, -.ably connected to said enlarlrement, said first mentioned roher and the bi@shiia(y beinly 30 on the inner side of said enlargement, ana. means for holding the bushing a-ainst rotation substantially as described. 21. In combination a bit head having a recess in its lower end with the side walls 35 inclining downwardly and out-wardly, annular flanges on said side walls, projecting downwardly and inwardly, side roller cutters on said flanges, means for holding the side roller cutters in place, and a roller cut- 40 ter adjacent one of the side roller cutters arranged coaxially therewith and arranged to singly cut a zone within the annular zone, jointly cut by the side cutters which trail each other, substantially as described. 45 22. In combination a bit head having a recess in its lower end with its side walls inclining downwardly and outwardly, side roller cutters mounted on said inclined walls with their axes conver&g downwardly and r)D inwardly to the vertical axis of the head and an additional roller cutter arran(yed coaxially with and directly adjacent one of the side cutters and spaced apart from the other side cutter, said additional cutter singly cutting 55 the bottom of the hole within the annular zone cut by the side cutters which trail each other. 23. A roller cutter organization for earth boring drills comprising frusto-conical side cutters to incline upwardly and inwardly to- 60 wards the vertical axis of the drill and to irack- with each other, and a substantially CODica-1 cutter to be arranged coaxially with and at t-he smaller end of one of the side 65 cutters and havin- its teetli projecting beyond the plane of the cuttiiig surface of said co- the annular zone jointly. cut by the side cutters. 24. ]In a dee weR drilliiag apparatus, a drill head having an inverted V shaped re- TO cess in its undersid@, tapered roller cutter means in said recess, mounted on the opposite side walls thereof aiad on axes at right angles to the said side walls of the recess and converging downwardly, the tapered roller 7,5 cutter mean on one waU occupyilag substan. tially all of the recess to one side of the verticil axis of the head, the said tapered roher cutter means on the opposite wafl being of less altitude than the roller cutter means tirst 80 mentioned, thus leaving an uncut area between itself and the vertical axis of the head to be cut by the roller cutter means first mentioned, substantiauy as described. 25. In a rot-ary boring drill, a spindle having an enlarged portion and a roller cutter having a base sectioii and a point section, said base section resting against the inner f@ce of said enlarired portion, and said pbint section restin- ajainst the outer face of said eia- go larged'portion -and beiiag rotatably secured to said spindle. 26. In a rotary boring driu, a spiiadle haviiag an enlarged portion and a roller cutter ha-,-ing a base section aiad a point section, said base section having a recess against the bottom of which said enlarged portion rests, and said point section resting oia the enlarged portion and ]@aving a recess in which the eDd of the spindle is rotatably secured. 100 27. In rotary weR drilling apparatus a head, a pair of frusto-conical opposed cut- ters at the lower end of the head having deep radial grooves intersected by deep circum- ferenti al grooves, formiiag@ cutting. teeth, 105 said 6utters being spaced apart with their teeth- non-interfitting and having the space betwe en them unobstructed and in line with the vertical axis of the head, said head hav- ing a. passage in line with the v6rtical axis 110 of _ tb e apparatus and in the sarne vertical plane in -vvhich the axes of the cutters lie to direct flushing fluid to said linobstructed space for its direct impingement upon the boftom of the hole, one of said cutters havino, 115 an independently rotat,,tble apex portion ex- tendin g to near the vertical axis of the ap- paratti s, the opposiiig cutter being minus an apex portion and-thiis providing a space on the other side of the axis substantially equiva- 120 lent in size to the apex portion of the cutter first mentioned, said space exposing an area of the bottom of the hole acted on by the flush- ing fluid coinino, down tlirough said axial unobst ructed space. 125 28. A roller bit cutter organization com- prising a roller cutter element positioned to etit the arei centrally of tlie bore hole in inon- trackin g relationship and intermediate in- clined roller cutters enlargii@g the hole de-

1,867,531 fined by the first mentioned element, all cutting elements haviiig their disposed in the same transverse vertical.plane, said cutting elements being located at the lower ire face of the bit head and cutting the ent area at the bottom of the hole each of said 7 cutting elemonts beina independently rotatable. e5 29. An earth borina roller bit comprising 10 an independently rotatable roller@ cutter arranged at the lower face of the bit head intermediate roller cutters that 6nlarge the hole dua by said first-mentioned cutter, the enlar 'ng cutters being set at an angle to the i tM 15 b t axis on opposite sides of the bit, the firstmentioned cutter being in Don-tracking reiationship' to any other cutter, said cutters cutting t4e entire area. at the bottom of the hole. 20 30. In combination with a, rotai@y drill stem and bit head for penetrating earth forpations, side roller cutters whose peripheries are divided by deep grooves forming teeth and an intermediate roller cutter whose pe- 25 riphery is divided by deep grooves, the intermediate cutter beino, arran-ed to cut in a In In @entral zone between the side etitters and ad]acent the longitudinal axis at the end of the head, said intern-iediate clitter Ivino, to one . tn 80 side of the axis of the head and opposite a space on the other side of said ,ixis exte-hding across said'central zone on said other side of the axis, and a flusliiii- fluid conduit in the head, the axes of all tl@e c-Litters lying iii the 35 same transverse vertical I)Iane and each of the cutters being indepenclently rotatable, all of said cutters bein- at the lower face of the bit head and cu.ttieg the entire area at the bottom of the hole. 40 31. In combination in a, deep well drilliii 9 apparatus, a bit head lia-ving a recess in itg lower end, roller cuttiitig means disposed in said recess on opposite sides of the vertical axis of the head to ciit the entire area at 45 the bottom of the hole, and napri.,ing si(le co cutters at opposite sides of said axis, the roller cutter means on one side of said vertical @xis of the drill coniprising a pliirality of in(lependently rotatable cutters, cutting an- 60 nular paths from the axis to the side and slightly beyond the head and a flusliing fluid conduit in the head, the cutter means being so ai,ranged that odly the peripheral cutters track each other. 55 32. Iii combination with ,L rot,,try drill stem and bit head for penetrating eartli forniations, side roller cutters the periplieries of which are.divided by deep orooves forinin zn 9 teeth7 an intermediate roller cutter to etit the do bottom of the hole at the @-,enter on a (lifferent plane from the cutting plane of the si(le cutters and in non-tracking relationship, the ' intermediate cutter and the deep grooves re- 65 ducing to a minimum the active cutting edges necessary to cut the entire area at the bottom of hole, the said combination under tl@e weight and rotation of the drill stem being adapted to wedge aiid gotige out rapidly the earth formation, and a flilshino, fluid conduit in the head, each side cutter and the intermediate. TO cutter bein(r rotatable independently and all t5 beino, located at the lower face of the bit head.' 33. A rotary well drill having roller cutters disoosed at the lower f ace of the bit head, 75 cutting areas inclined to the axis of the bore hole, and mounted to cut the entire area at the bottom of the hole -with a, rolling mo- tion one of the cutters being arranged for 2 cutting in a, central zone adjacent the longi- 80 tudinal axis of the drill head aiid opposite an open space portion above said central zone extending to the inner side of one of said roller cutters placed at opposite sides of bit axis and beyond the central zone, one of the 85 said cutters being a rolling side cutter placed next adjaceiit the first mentioned cutter, said cutters each being independeiitly rotatable and each havin- relativeky deep grooves formin(r teeth therein, deep and rapid pene- 90 tration of earth forn-iation beiii(-r thereby at- tained under the weight and rotation of the drill stem, and a flushino,- fluid conduit dis- posed to deliver fluid across the cutters down- wardly and to impin,-,e on the bottom of the 95 hole. 34. In combination a bit head having a recess in its lower end -Nvith its side walls iincliding downwardly and outwar . dly, side roller cutters 1-nounted on said inclined walls 100 with their axes conver-infr downwardly and inwardty to the vertical axis of the head and an intermediate independently rotatable roller cutter arranged adjacent one of the side cutters, cuttiny a central zone, and 105 n spaced apart.from the other side cutter, a dis- tance not less than the width of the central zone, said interiliediate cutter cuttin(r the bot- tom of the hole within the annular paths of the side cutters, said cutters cutting the en- 310 tire area at the bottom of the hole. 35. In a deep well di-illino, apparatus, a drill head having a recess in 1 ':Its under side, roller cutter means iii said recess, mounted on the opposite side walls thereof aiid on axes 115 at right angles to the said side walls of the recess and convergilig doivnwardly, the roller cutter means on one wall occupying substan- tially all of the recess to one side of the ver- tical ,ixis of the head aiid comprising at least 120 two cutters capable of independent -rotation and the said ciitter means on the opposite wall be , a side,cutter spaced apart from in" the first mentioned cutter means aiid arranged to cut an annular path outwardly from the 125 central area cut by the first mentioned means. 36. A roller bit comprising a roller cutter set to one side only of the bit axis and liaving an open space on the opposite side of said 130 axis of substantiafly the same width as the

cutter, the cutter and space being intermediate roller cutters on the opposit-e sides of the bit head set to enlarge the hole by cutting an annular area adjacent to and outside the area cut by the first mentioned cutter, the axes of all cutters being disposed in the same vertical plane, and the axes of the second mentioned cutters inclining downwardly and in-wardly, all the cutters being at the lower face of the bit head, independently rotatable 10 and cuttiiig the entire area at the bottom of the hole. 37. An earth boring drill bit comprising a bit head having a. recess at its under end, 15 roller cutter means in said recess mounted upon the opposite side -walls thereof and on axes at right angles to said side walls and copverging downwardly,. said cutter means bein, adapted to track each other over a, lim- 20 ited area extending iiiwardly from the outer ed(ye of the bore hole, and additional inde- zn .pendently rotatable roller cutter means mounted on the bit head in such radial position that it provides non-tracking cutting 25 means for the central area of the hole. 38. An earth borin-. drill comprisin(y a bit head, cutters arradged at opposite points at the lower face of the bead to cut an annular path, a third cutter arranged to one side of 3() ind adjacent the vertical axis of the drill and cuttincy an a-@inular zone at the center of the bore hole -within the zo-ne cut by the cutters first mentioned, the portion of said central zone oii tlae opposite sicle of the vertical axis of the drill from the said third cutter being unoccupied by any cutter and thus providin(r a space ivithiii the cutter organization of a -width substantially equal to that occu-pied by the said third cutter, and a flushing 4(; fluid passage in the head directed to the space betiveen the cutters and to said unoccupied space, the axes of all theeutters being in the same vertical plane, all of said cutters being independently rotatable and cutting the en- 4.5 tire area. at the bottom of the hole. In testimony whereof I affix my signature. CLARENCE E. REED. too

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